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Bambanci tsakanin murfin injin da rufi na gani

2021年8月31日

 

Rufin injin yana amfani da fitowar haske don tasiri argon (Tare) ions a farfajiyar manufa.
Ana fitar da kwayoyin halittar abin da aka nufa da su kuma suna taruwa akan farfajiyar ƙasa don samar da fim mai kauri., amma saurin rufewa yana da hankali fiye da na fim ɗin da aka ɓata .. Kusan duk sabbin kayan aikin watsawa suna amfani da manyan maganadisun lantarki don karkace electrons don hanzarta ionization na argon a kusa da manufa.
Yana haifar da yuwuwar karo tsakanin manufa da argon ions don ƙaruwa,
Ƙara ƙima, murfin ƙarfe galibi suna amfani da sputtering DC, da kayan yumbu marasa aiki suna amfani da RF AC sputtering. Babban mahimmanci shine amfani da fitowar haske (haske mai haske a cikin injin).
sallama) Argon (Tare) ions sun bugi inda ake nufi, da cations a cikin plasma za su hanzarta zuwa saman wutar lantarki mara kyau azaman kayan da aka watsa. Wannan tasirin zai haifar da abin da aka nufa da shi ya tashi ya ajiye a kan Fim ɗin substrate akan, yin amfani da tsarin watsawa don suturar fim yana da halaye da yawa: (1) Karfe, za a iya yin alloy ko insulator cikin kayan fim.(2) A karkashin yanayin saitin da ya dace, za a iya yin fim ɗin na bakin ciki iri ɗaya daga maƙasudi masu yawa da hadaddun.(3) Ta hanyar ƙara iskar oxygen ko wasu iskar gas masu aiki a cikin yanayin fitar, za a iya yin cakuda ko cakuda kayan da aka yi niyya da ƙwayoyin gas.(4) Za a iya sarrafa shigar da manufa da ake buƙata da kuma lokacin ɓarna, kuma yana da sauƙi don samun kaurin fim ɗin madaidaici.(5) Idan aka kwatanta da sauran matakai, ya fi dacewa da samar da manyan finafinai irin na yanki.(6) Ƙwayoyin da ke yaɗuwa kusan ba sa shafar nauyi, kuma za a iya shirya matsayi na abin da aka nufa da kuma abin da ake so.(7) Ƙarfin mannewa tsakanin substrate da fim ya fi 10 sau ɗaya na fim ɗin gama gari na tururi, kuma saboda barbashi masu ɗauke da abubuwa suna ɗauke da ƙarfi, za su ci gaba da yaɗuwa akan fim ɗin da ke yin farfajiya don samun fim mai ƙarfi da kauri. A lokaci guda, babban ƙarfin yana sa substrate kawai yana buƙatar fim ɗin Crystallized ana iya samunsa a ƙananan zafin jiki.(8) Babban ƙima mai yawa a matakin farko na samuwar fim, wanda zai iya samar da fim mai ɗorewa mai zurfi a ƙasa 10nm.(9) Kayan da aka yi niyya yana da tsawon rai kuma ana iya yin shi ta atomatik kuma a ci gaba da samarwa na dogon lokaci.(10) Za a iya yin kayan da aka yi niyya cikin surori daban -daban, tare da ƙirar injin na musamman don ingantaccen sarrafawa da ingantaccen samarwa.

Rufin gani
1. Fim mai jurewa (yana yin fim)
Ko da kuwa ko an yi shi da kayan inorganic ko kayan halitta, cikin amfanin yau da kullun, gogayya da ƙura ko grit (silicon oxide) zai sa ruwan tabarau ya yi rauni da karce a saman ruwan tabarau .. Idan aka kwatanta da takardar gilashi,
Taurin kayan halitta yana da ƙarancin inganci, kuma ya fi saurin karcewa ta hanyar madubin dubawa, za mu iya lura cewa tarkace a saman ruwan tabarau galibi an kasu kashi biyu. Oneaya shine ƙyallen da grit ya haifar, wanda ba shi da zurfi kuma karami, wanda ba shi da sauki ga mai sanyawa ya gane; ɗayan shine ƙyallen da babban grit ya haifar. , Mai zurfi da m a kusa, kasancewa a yankin tsakiya zai shafi hangen nesa.
(1) Halayen fasaha
1) Tsarin ƙarni na farko na fasahar fim ɗin yaƙi
An fara fim ɗin rigakafin sawa a farkon shekarun 1970. A lokacin, an yi imanin cewa tabarau na gilashi ba su da sauƙi a niƙa saboda tsananin taurin su, yayin da ruwan tabarau na halitta yayi taushi sosai kuma ya kasance mai sauƙin sakawa ..Saboda haka, an ɗora kayan ma'adini a saman ruwan tabarau na halitta a ƙarƙashin yanayin ɓarna don samar da fim mai wahala sosai. Duk da haka, saboda rashin daidaituwa tsakanin daidaiton faɗaɗa zafinsa da kayan tushe, yana da sauƙin cirewa kuma fim ɗin yana da rauni, don haka yana da tsayayyar tasirin lalacewa mara gamsarwa.
2) Ƙarni na biyu na fasahar fim ɗin hana yaɗuwa
Bayan shekarun 1980, masu bincike sun gano a ka'idar cewa tsarin sutura ba wai kawai yana da alaƙa da tauri ba. Kayan fim yana da halaye biyu na “taurin/nakasawa”, wato, wasu kayan suna da tauri mafi girma amma ƙarancin nakasa, kuma wasu Ƙarfin abu yana da ƙanƙanta, amma nakasa yana da girma.Karni na biyu na fasahar fim ɗin rigakafin lalacewa shine farantin abu mai tsananin taurin kai kuma ba mai sauƙin fashewa a saman ruwan tabarau ta hanyar nutsewa..
3) Tsarin ƙarni na uku na fasahar fim ɗin hana sutura
An samar da fasahar fim na rigakafin suturar ƙarni na uku bayan shekarun 1990, galibi don magance matsalar rashin juriya bayan an rufe ruwan tabarau na halitta tare da fim mai haskakawa..Tun da taurin tushen ruwan tabarau na halitta da taurin murfin anti-reflective sun sha bamban., sabuwar ka'idar ta yi imanin cewa akwai buƙatar samun suturar rigakafin lalacewa tsakanin su biyun, don ruwan tabarau na iya yin aiki azaman abin toshewa yayin da ƙura ta goge shi. Ba mai saurin fashewa ba.Taurin kayan fim na rigakafin lalacewa na ƙarni na uku yana tsakanin taurin fim ɗin anti-reflection da tushe ruwan tabarau, kuma ƙwanƙwasawar taɓarɓarewarta tana da ƙanƙanta kuma ba ta da sauƙi ta kasance mai rauni.
4) Tsarin ƙarni na huɗu na fasahar fim ɗin hana yaɗuwa
Fasahar fim ta ƙarni na huɗu tana amfani da atomic silicon. Misali, Ruwa mai ƙarfi na TITUS na Faransa Essilor ya ƙunshi matrix na Organic da barbashi na inorganic ultrafine gami da silicon don yin fim ɗin rigakafin Haɓaka taurin yayin da yake da tauri., wato, ruwan tabarau yana nutse cikin ruwa mai tauri bayan tsaftacewa da yawa, sannan aka ɗaga shi a wani madaidaiciya bayan wani lokaci..Wannan saurin yana da alaƙa da ɗanɗano ruwan mai kauri kuma yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin kaurin fim ɗin ɓarna ..Bayan ɗagawa, polymerize a cikin tanda a game 100 ° C don 4-5 awanni, kuma kaurin rufin yana kusa 3-5 microns.
(2) Hanyar gwaji
Hanya mafi mahimmanci don yin hukunci da gwada juriya na fim ɗin rigakafin lalacewa shine amfani da shi a asibiti, bari mai sawa ya sa ruwan tabarau na wani lokaci, sannan ku lura kuma ku kwatanta lalacewar ruwan tabarau tare da madubin dubawa.Tabbas, galibi wannan ita ce hanyar da ake amfani da ita kafin gabatarwar wannan sabuwar fasaha. A halin yanzu, hanyoyin gwaji mafi sauri da ƙima da muke yawan amfani da su:
1) Gwajin sanyi
Sanya ruwan tabarau a cikin kayan talla da ke cike da tsakuwa (an kayyade girman hatsi da taurin tsakuwa), da shafawa baya da baya a karkashin wani iko.Bayan karshen, yi amfani da ma'aunin hazo don gwada adadin watsawar ruwan tabarau kafin da bayan gogayya, kuma kwatanta shi da madaidaicin ruwan tabarau.
2) Gwajin ulu na karfe
Yi amfani da takamaiman ulu na ƙarfe don shafa saman ruwan tabarau sau da yawa a ƙarƙashin wani matsin lamba da sauri, sannan kuyi amfani da ma'aunin hazo don gwada adadin watsawar ruwan tabarau kafin da bayan gogayya, kuma kwatanta shi da madaidaicin ruwan tabarau.Tabbas, muna kuma iya yi da hannu, shafa ruwan tabarau guda biyu daidai gwargwado tare da matsin lamba iri ɗaya, sannan ku lura kuma ku kwatanta da ido mara kyau..
Sakamakon hanyoyin gwaji guda biyu da ke sama suna da kusanci da sakamakon asibiti na suturar da mai ɗaukar nauyi na dogon lokaci.
3) Dangantakar da ke tsakanin fim ɗin haskakawa da fim ɗin yaƙi
Rufin anti-reflection akan farfajiyar ruwan tabarau abu ne mai kauri mai kauri na ƙarfe (kauri kasa da 1 micron), mai ƙarfi da ƙanƙara.Lokacin da aka ɗora shi akan ruwan tabarau na gilashi, tun da tushe yana da ɗan wahala kuma guntun yana kan shi, Layer fim yana da wuyar warwarewa; amma lokacin da aka ɗora fim ɗin anti-tunani akan ruwan tabarau, saboda tushe yana da taushi, murfin yana kan fim. An yayyafa a kan Layer, fim ɗin yana da sauƙi.
Saboda haka, dole ne a rufe ruwan tabarau na halitta tare da suturar riga-kafi kafin murfin tunani, kuma taurin murfin biyu dole ne yayi daidai..
2. Fim ɗin anti-tunani
(1) Me yasa muke buƙatar murfin anti-reflective?
1) Tunanin hanzari
Lokacin da haske ya ratsa saman gaban da baya na ruwan tabarau, ba wai kawai za a yi biris da shi ba, but it will also be reflected..This kind of reflected light generated on the front surface of the lens will cause others to see the eyes of the wearer, but they will see a white light on the surface of the lens..When taking pictures, this kind of reflection will also seriously affect the appearance of the wearer.
2) “Ghost
The optical theory of spectacles believes that the refractive power of the spectacle lens will make the viewed object form a clear image at the far point of the wearer. Hakanan ana iya bayyana shi azaman hasken abin da aka gani yana jujjuyawa ta cikin ruwan tabarau kuma ya tattara akan tantanin ido don samar da hoton hoto..Duk da haka, saboda lanƙwasa na gaban da na baya na ruwan tabarau mai rarrafe ya bambanta, kuma akwai wani adadin haske da aka nuna, za a sami haske na tunani a tsakanin su..Wani haske na cikin gida zai samar da hoto mai kama-da-wane kusa da farfajiyar farfajiya mai nisa., wato, hoton hoto mai kama -da -wane kusa da wurin hoton retina Waɗannan mahimman hotunan hoton za su shafi tsabta da jin daɗin hangen nesa.
3) Glare
Kamar duk tsarin na gani, ido bai cika ba. Hoton da aka ƙera akan tantanin ido ba batu bane, amma da'irar m .. Saboda haka, ji na maki biyu da ke kusa an samar da su ta hanyar juxtaposed fiye da overasa masu juye juye -juye. Muddin tazara tsakanin maki biyu ya isa sosai, hoton da ke kan tantanin ido zai samar da abin mamaki na maki biyu, amma idan maki biyu sun yi kusa, da'irori guda biyu masu haushi za su yi karo da juna kuma a yi kuskure don aya ɗaya.
Ana iya amfani da kwatancen don nuna wannan sabon abu da bayyana tsinkayen hangen nesa Dole darajar ƙimar ta fi girma fiye da wani ƙima (ƙofar fahimta, daidai da 1-2) don tabbatar da cewa idanu za su iya rarrabe maki biyu da ke kusa.
Tsarin lissafi na bambanci shine: D = ba(tafi)/(a+b ba)
Inda C shine bambanci, mafi girman ƙimar abin ƙima da aka zana ta abubuwa biyu da ke kusa a kan tantanin ido shine a, kuma ƙimar mafi ƙanƙanta na ɓangaren da ke kusa shine b. Mafi girman ƙimar C, mafi girman ƙuduri na tsarin gani zuwa maki biyu kuma yana bayyana tsinkaye; idan maki abu biyu suna da kusanci sosai, mafi ƙanƙanta darajar ɓangarorinsu na kusa suna kusa da mafi girman ƙima, sannan darajar C tayi ƙasa , Nuna cewa tsarin gani ba a bayyane yake game da maki biyu, ko ba zai iya rarrabewa a sarari ba.
Bari mu kwaikwaya irin wannan yanayin: da dare, direba da tabarau a bayyane yana ganin kekuna biyu suna hawa zuwa motarsa ​​a sabanin nisa..A wannan karon, fitilun motar da ke biye yana yin nuni a saman fuskar madubin direban: hoton da aka samar ta hanyar hasken da ke nuna akan tantanin ido yana ƙara ƙarfin maki biyu da aka lura (fitilun keke).Saboda haka, tsawon sassan a da b yana ƙaruwa, koda kuwa mai ƙima ne (a+b ba) yana ƙaruwa, amma mai lamba (tafi) ya kasance iri ɗaya, wanda ke haifar da raguwar ƙimar C. Sakamakon raguwar bambanci zai haifar da jin daɗin da direban ke ji na kasancewar masu hawan keke biyu su sake haɗuwa cikin hoto ɗaya, kamar yadda ake rage kusurwar rarrabasu ba zato ba tsammani.!
4) Fitarwa
Yawan hasken da ke nunawa a cikin hasken abin da ya faru ya dogara ne da jujjuyawar kayan tabarau, wanda za a iya lasafta shi ta hanyar dabarar adadin tunani.
Tsarin tunani: R = ba(n-1) murabba'i/(n+1) murabba'i
R: tunani mai gefe ɗaya na ruwan tabarau n: Refractive index of the lens material
Misali, da refractive index na talakawa guduro kayan ne 1.50, hasken haske R = (1.50-1) murabba'i/(1.50 + 1) Faɗin = 0.04 = 4%.
Gilashin ruwan tabarau yana da fuska biyu. Idan R1 shine adadin gaban gaban ruwan tabarau kuma R2 shine adadin tunani akan farfajiyar ruwan tabarau ta baya, sannan jimlar adadin ruwan tabarau shine R = R1+R2.(Lokacin lissafin tunanin R2, hasken lamarin shine 100%-R1).Transtance na ruwan tabarau T = 100%-R1-R2.
Ana iya ganin cewa idan babban ruwan tabarau mai ƙyalƙyali ba shi da abin rufe fuska, hasken da aka haska zai kawo ƙarin rashin jin daɗi ga mai sakawa..
(2) Ka'ida
Rufin haskakawa yana dogara ne akan raƙuman haske da sabon abu na shisshigi., amplitude na haske kalaman zai karu; idan raƙuman haske guda biyu asalinsu ɗaya ne, tsawon kalaman ya bambanta, kuma idan raƙuman haske biyu sun mamaye, suna soke juna..Fim ɗin anti-reflection yana amfani da wannan ƙa'idar don rufe saman ruwan tabarau tare da fim mai hana tunani, ta yadda hasken da ke haskakawa da ke fitowa a saman fim da gaba da baya ya tsoma baki a tsakaninsu, ta haka ne za a soke hasken da aka haskaka da kuma samun sakamako na rashin tunani..
1) Yanayin girma
Fassarar juzu'i na kayan fim dole ne ya zama daidai da tushen murabba'i na ƙirar ƙirar ruwan tabarau.
2) Yanayin mataki
Ya kamata kaurin fim ɗin ya kasance 1/4 Tsawon zango na hasken tunani Lokacin da d = λ/4 λ = 555nm, d = 555/4 = 139nm
Don murfin anti-tunani, masana'antun ruwan tabarau da yawa suna amfani da raƙuman haske (matsakaicin zango na 555nm) wadanda suka fi kula da idon mutum.Lokacin kaurin rufin ya yi kauri (<139nm), hasken da aka nuna zai bayyana launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi, idan shudi ne, yana nufin cewa kaurin rufin ya yi kauri sosai (>139nm).
Dalilin murfin abin rufe fuska shine don rage haske, amma ba zai yiwu a cimma wani haske na haske ba.Kullum za a sami launin saura a saman ruwan tabarau, amma wanda shine mafi kyawun launi, a gaskiya, babu ma'auni. A halin yanzu, galibi yana dogara ne akan fifikon mutum don launi, kuma mafi yawansa kore ne..
Hakanan zamu gano cewa daban -daban masu lanƙwasawa na launi da suka ragu a kan kusurwoyin da saman saman ruwan tabarau suma suna sa saurin rufewar ya bambanta, don haka tsakiyar ruwan tabarau kore ne, kuma ɓangaren gefen shine lavender ko wasu launuka..
3) Anti-tunani shafi fasaha
Rufin ruwan tabarau ya fi wahalar ruwan tabarau gilashi kayan gilashi na iya jure yanayin zafi sama 300 ° C, yayin da ruwan tabarau na halitta zai juya launin rawaya lokacin da ya wuce 100 ° C sannan kuma da sauri ya ruɓe.
Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) galibi ana amfani da shi azaman kayan rufe fuska don hana ruwan tabarau. Duk da haka, Dole ne a aiwatar da tsarin suturar magnesium fluoride a zazzabi sama da 200 ° C., in ba haka ba ba za a iya haɗe shi da saman ruwan tabarau ba, don haka ruwan tabarau na Organic Kada kuyi amfani da shi.
Tun daga shekarun 1990, tare da ci gaban fasahar rufe injin, amfani da fasahar bama -bamai na ion beam ya sanya hada fim da ruwan tabarau, kuma an inganta haɗin fim ɗin..Kuma, za a iya yin fa'idar kayan tsabtataccen ƙarfe na ƙarfe irin su titanium oxide da zirconium oxide a saman ruwan tabarau na resin ta hanyar aikin ƙaura don cimma sakamako mai kyau na tunani..
Na gaba shine gabatarwa ga fasahar murƙushewar anti-reflective na ruwan tabarau.
1) Shiri kafin a rufe
Dole ne a tsabtace ruwan tabarau kafin karɓar murfin. Buƙatar tsaftacewa tana da yawa, kai matakin kwayoyin..Tsa ruwa daban -daban na tsaftacewa a cikin tankin tsaftacewa, da amfani da ultrasonic don haɓaka tasirin tsaftacewa. Bayan an tsabtace ruwan tabarau, sanya shi a cikin ɗakin ɗaki. A lokacin wannan tsari, kula da hankali na musamman don guje wa ƙura da datti a cikin iska daga mannewa saman fuskar ruwan tabarau..Tsarin tsaftacewa yana cikin ɗaki. A lokacin wannan tsari, yakamata a kula sosai don gujewa ƙura da datti a cikin iska daga manne akan saman ruwan tabarau.. Ana yin tsaftacewa ta ƙarshe kafin a ɗora a cikin ɗaki. Bindigar ion da aka sanya a cikin ɗakin ɓarna za ta fashe saman ruwan tabarau (misali, tare da argon ions). Bayan an kammala wannan aikin tsaftacewa, za a yi murfin fim ɗin anti-reflection..
2) Rufin injin
Tsarin ƙaƙƙarfan injin zai iya tabbatar da cewa an ɗora kayan abin da aka rufe a saman ruwan tabarau, kuma a lokaci guda, za a iya sarrafa sinadaran abubuwan da aka rufe sosai a yayin aikin ƙaura..Tsarin ƙaƙƙarfan injin zai iya sarrafa madaurin fim ɗin daidai, kuma daidaito ya kai.
3) Tabbatar da fim
Don ruwan tabarau na kallo, tsayin fim ɗin yana da mahimmanci, kuma shine mahimmin inganci mai inganci na ruwan tabarau.Alamomin ingancin ruwan tabarau sun haɗa da hana tabarau, gidan kayan gargajiya na gargajiya, bambancin anti-zazzabi, da sauransu..Saboda haka, akwai hanyoyi da yawa na gwaji na zahiri da na sinadarai. A karkashin sharuddan kwaikwayon amfani da mai sanyawa, ana gwada ingancin fim ɗin ruwan tabarau mai rufi..Wannan hanyoyin gwajin sun haɗa da: gwajin ruwan gishiri, gwajin tururi, gwajin ruwa mai narkewa, gwajin gogayya ulu, gwajin rushewa, gwajin mannewa, gwajin bambancin zafin jiki da gwajin zafi, da dai sauransu.
3. Fim mai hana ruwa (saman fim)
(1) Ka'ida
Bayan farfajiyar ruwan tabarau an rufe shi da fim mai nuna fa'ida mai yawa, ruwan tabarau yana da saukin kamuwa da tabo, da tabo za su lalata tasirin hasashen fim ɗin anti-reflection ƙarƙashin ƙarƙashin madubin dubawa, zamu iya gano cewa murfin anti-reflective yana da tsarin porous, don haka tabon mai yana da sauƙin shiga ciki cikin abin rufe fuska.Matsalar ita ce a rufe saman fim ɗin tare da juriya da ruwa a kan fim ɗin anti-reflective, kuma wannan fim ɗin dole ne ya zama mai bakin ciki sosai don kada ya canza aikin gani na fim ɗin anti-reflective.
(2) Tsari
Fim ɗin anti -dattijon galibi fluoride ne, kuma akwai hanyoyin sarrafawa guda biyu, daya shine hanyar nutsewa, ɗayan shine murfin injin, kuma hanyar da aka fi amfani da ita ita ce abin rufe fuska. Hanyar da aka fi amfani da ita ita ce abin rufe fuska., Za a iya yin amfani da sinadarin fluoride a kan fim mai nunin faifai ta amfani da tsarin ƙaura., kuma zai iya rage wurin tuntuɓar ruwa da mai tare da ruwan tabarau, ta yadda digon man da ruwa ba su da saukin bi a saman ruwan tabarau, don haka shi ma ake kira fim mai hana ruwa.
Don ruwan tabarau na halitta, ingantaccen tsarin tsarin farfajiyar yakamata ya zama fim mai haɗewa gami da fim na hanawa, Fim mai ban mamaki da yawa fim da fim ɗin fim mai ɓarna. Galibi abin rufe fuska na fim ɗin shine mafi kauri, kusan 3-5mm, kuma kaurin fim mai haskakawa mai yawa ya kusan 0.3um, mafi ƙanƙantar da murfin kakin zuma a saman saman, game da 0.005-0.01mm Tauki Faransanci Essilor Crizal, composite film a matsayin misali, tushen ruwan tabarau an rufe shi da fim mai jurewa tare da silicon na halitta; sannan ta amfani da fasahar IPC, an rufe fim ɗin anti-reflection by bombardment ion Tsabtacewa kafin tsaftacewa; bayan tsaftacewa, Yi amfani da zirconium dioxide mai ƙarfi (ZrO2) da sauran kayan don murfin injin na murfi mai murfi da yawa; a ƙarshe, farantin saman fim ɗin tare da kusurwar lamba ta 110. Nasarar ci gaban fasahar fim ɗin lu'ulu'u na lu'ulu'u ya nuna cewa fasahar maganin farfajiyar ruwan tabarau ta kai wani sabon matakin..

Idan don gwajin kaurin fim ne kawai, banbanci tsakanin murfin injin da rufi na gani shine:
1. Rufin injin: Gabaɗaya TiN, CrN, TiC, ZrN, kaurin electroplating shine kusan 3 ~ 5 microns.In general, ba za a iya gwada kaurin fim ɗin rufe injin ba akan kayan aiki;
2. Za'a iya shigar da gwajin kaurin fim na murfin gani a saman injin murfin tare da gwajin gwajin kauri..
Farkon shine gwajin sarrafa haske, kuma yanzu sarrafa crystal (crystal oscillator) gabaɗaya ana amfani dashi don gwada kaurin rufi ta amfani da mitar oscillator na crystal .. Kaurin fim daban -daban sun bambanta.
Ko da injin murfin an yi shi a China, mai gwajin kaurin fim kuma ana yin sa a Amurka ko Koriya ta Kudu..Salin GM na Amurka shine: Saukewa: MDC360C.

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