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Magnetron sputtering type

2021年10月19日

يتضمن رش المغنطرون العديد من الأنواع ، ولكل منها مبادئ عمل مختلفة وكائنات تطبيق ، ولكن هناك شيء واحد مشترك: the interaction between the magnetic field and the electric field makes the electrons spiral around the target surface, thereby increasing the probability of the electrons hitting the argon gas to produce ions..The generated ions collide with the target surface under the action of an electric field to sputter the target material.

The target source is divided into balanced and unbalanced. The balanced target source has uniform coating, and the unbalanced target source has a strong bonding force between the coating film and the substrate..Balanced target sources are mostly used for semiconductor optical films, and unbalanced sources are mostly used for wearing decorative films..Magnetron cathodes are distributed differently according to the magnetic field configuration and can be roughly divided into balanced and unbalanced magnetron cathodes..The magnetic flux of the magnetic steel inside and outside the equilibrium magnetron cathode is approximately equal, and the two poles of magnetic field lines are closed on the target surface, which confines the electrons/plasma near the target surface well, increases the collision probability and improves the ionization efficiency, so it works at a lower level. It can start and maintain the glow discharge under air pressure and voltage, and the utilization rate of the target material is relatively high. ومع ذلك, since the electrons move along the magnetic field line mainly close to the target surface, the substrate area is less bombarded by ions..The concept of unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology means that the magnetic flux of the outer magnetic pole of the magnetron cathode is greater than the inner magnetic pole. The magnetic field lines extend to the substrate, increasing the plasma density and gas ionization rate in the substrate area.Regardless of balance or unbalance, if the magnet is stationary, its magnetic field characteristics determine the general target utilization rate is less than 30%.In order to increase the utilization rate of the target material, a rotating magnetic field can be used.But the rotating magnetic field requires a rotating mechanism, and the sputtering rate should be reduced at the same time.Rotating magnetic field is mostly used for large or expensive targets.Such as semiconductor film sputtering.For small equipment and general industrial equipment, a static magnetic field target source is often used.

It is easy to sputter metals and alloys with a magnetron target source, and it is easy to ignite and sputter.This is because the target (الكاثود), بلازما, and splashed parts/vacuum chamber can form a loop.But if sputtering insulators such as ceramics, the circuit is broken.So people use high-frequency power supplies and add strong capacitors to the loop.In this way, the target material becomes a capacitor in the insulation circuit.However, the high frequency magnetron sputtering power supply is expensive, the sputtering rate is very small, and the grounding technology is very complicated, so it is difficult to adopt on a large scale..To solve this problem, magnetron reactive sputtering was invented.It is to use a metal target, add argon and reaction gas such as nitrogen or oxygen.When the metal target material hits the part due to energy conversion, it combines with the reaction gas to form nitride or oxide.Magnetron reactive sputtering insulator seems easy, but the actual operation is difficult.The main problem is that the reaction not only occurs on the surface of the part, but also on the anode, the surface of the vacuum chamber, and the surface of the target source..Thereby causing fire extinguishing, arcing of the target source and the surface of the workpiece, إلخ..

Cooling is necessary for all sources (magnetron, multi-arc, ions), because a large part of the energy is converted into heat. If there is no cooling or insufficient cooling, this heat will make the target source temperature more than one thousand degrees and melt the entire target source.

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